HAT LEXICON

 

ABACA

binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philipines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. The plant is of great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, once generally called Manilla Hemp, extracted from the trunk or pseudostem. On average, the plant grows about 12 feet (4 meters) tall. The fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes; now most abacá is pulped and used in a variety of specialized paper products including tea bags, filter paper and banknotes. Also known for hat making to make Sisal Straw

AMMANA

Large wound turban worn by Muslim's.

BANDEAU

A headband of material, structured or unstructured.

BASEBALL CAP

Cloth cap with  brim. Originally worn by baseball players ,now worn as a general leisure hat.

BEAVER

A expensive felt made from felted beaver fur. To make felt, the underhairs were shaved from the beaver pelt and mixed with a vibrating hatter's bow. The matted fabric was pummeled and boiled repeatedly, resulting in a shrunken and thickened felt. Filled over a hat-form block, the felt was pressed and steamed into shape. The hat maker then brushed the outside surface to a sheen.

BEARSKIN

A large furry high crowned hat, which is part of a uniform worn by the Coldstream Guards

BERET

Cap made from felt, felted jersey or fabric with soft, wide, circular crown.

BEST STUFF 

19th century term for rabbit fur, including the backs and the best parts of the sides mixed together.

BICORNE

Hat of the late 18th and early 19th century: wide brims were folded up to form two points.

BIRETTA

Square cap worn by clergy the crown has three or four projections.

BLOCK

A wooden form used as a mould to shape, by hand a brim or crown.

BLOCKING

Is the term used to describe the action of molding a hat shape.

BOATER

Flat-topped hat with small flat brim. traditionally, made of stiffened straw braid.

BONNET

Women's or girl's head-dress, with deep brim and ribbons to tie under the chin.

BONNET ROUGE

Red cap worn during the French Revolution as a symbol of liberty.

BOWLER

Oval hat with round, rigid crown and a small, shaped, curved brim. Also known as a derby, because the style was made popular by the Earl of Derby in 19th century England.

BRETON

Women's hat with domed crown and brim turned-up all around.

BRIDAL VEIL

Usually white or ivory veil worn during wedding ceremony. 

BRIM

Projecting edge of a hat.

BUCKRAM

Stiff netting used to make hats. May be blocked or sewn. Once used by milliners to make blocks for limited use.

BUMPING
Term used for the process of final felting of a hood, further compressing and felting of hoods done in a bumping machine.

CALOTTE

A close-fitting skull cap as worn by the Roman Catholic Clergy.

CANADIAN MOUNTIES STETSON

Official head-dress of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

CANOTIER

Boater (French).

CAP

A hat with a small brim at the front.

CAPELINE

Roughly shaped crown and brim of felt or straw the body will soon be blocked into hat shape.

CARROTING

Preliminary treatment of wool or fur with acids, to curl the hairs. Produces a reddish-yellow colour which is the origin of the name.

CATHERINETTE

French term for milliners. Named after St Catherine the patron saint of milliners. The 27th of November is St Catherine's Day.

CAUL

Historical term for a a net or close-fitting indoor head-dress, or the plain back part of the same.

CAVALIER HAT

A wide-brimmed, plumed hat worn by cavaliers in the 17th century: the right side of the brim was pinned up to the crown so that the wearer's sword arm could move freely above the shoulder.

CHIRA

Indian Turban

CLOCHE 

Women's hat of the 1920's. Close-fitting round crown, with no brim or a small flare at the brim edge. 

COALMAN HAT

A short visor cap with a protective flap at the back, derived from a hat worn by English coal deliverers to protect their backs from dust.

COCKADE

Ornamental rosette of ribbon or cloth, worn on a hat as a badge of office or as a decoration.

COCKED HAT

An old-fashioned three-cornered hat.

COCKTAIL HAT

A small, often frivolous, hat for women, usually worn forward on the head.

COIF

Head-cover worn by nuns as part of their habit, often with long veils.

CONE

Conically shaped hood of felt or straw used as a base for blocking small hat shapes or crowns.

CORONOT 

Small crown worn by members of nobility as a symbol of rank.

COWBOY HAT

Hat with high crown and wide brim, originally worn by cow hands. Usually made of felt or leather. 

CROWN

Head-dress usually made of gold and worn as a symbol of sovereignty by monarchs. 

CROWN ( in hat lingo)

The top part of a hat.

CRUSH HAT

A collapsible opera hat.

DANBURY SHAKES

Mercury poisoning in the hatmaking industries of Danbury, Connecticut gave rise to the expression.

DEER STALKER

A hunting cap with visors at the front and back, and ear-flaps that can be tied up over the crown. Made famous by the fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes.

DOFF

The action of partially removing a hat by males as a sign of respect

DIADEM

A jeweled headband.

EASTER BONNET

A new spring style to be worn at Easter.

ENGLISH DRIVING CAP

Low-profile cap, originally only for men, with small brim at the front. Crown may be tailored with side panels, or gored.

FEATHER HEAD- DRESS

Ceremonial and symbolic head-cover worn by chiefs of North American Indian tribes.

FEDORA

A brimmed soft felt hat with a tapered crown that is dented lengthways. It comes originally from the Austrian Tyrol and is named after FEDORA a play by the French dramatist Victorien Sardou which was shown in Paris in 1882.

FELT

Cloth made from wool, fur or hair, compacted (felted) by rolling and pressing, in the presence of heat and moisture.

FEZ

The fez was developed to fashionable heights by Andalusian Moors in the city of Fes, Morocco, by the 17th century. The artisans involved in their making were the most select members of the city's souqs. Brimless felt cap, usually red and tasselled, shaped like a truncated cone

FILLET

A band for the hair.

FISH TAIL

Ribbon with a decorative v-shape cut at the end.

FORAGE CAP

Military cap with a small brim.

FULLING 

Tumbling and pounding of cloth in hot water to induce felting.

FUR FELT

Any hood or capeline of felt made from fur fibers.

GAINSBOROUGH HAT

A high crowned big brimmed hat decorated with feathers and ribbons became popular in the 1780's

Garbo hat: Slouch hat. (a soft, broad-brimmed hat)

GAMBLER

The Gambler conveys the notion of the Wild West while retaining an air of formality and dress. The crown of a Gambler resembles a pork pie crown, but the brim is wider than most dress hats but smaller than most cowboy hats and the edge is curled up in a tight “pencil” curl.

GAUCHO HAT

A black felt hat with a wide flat brim and shallow flat-topped crown on most, a wind tie. This hat was the main article of clothing used by Gauchos in the early 19th century to work on the South American ranges

GIBUS 

Collapsible top hat. [French, from the maker's name.]

GLENGARRY

Highlander's cap of thick-milled woolen cloth, generally rising to a point in front, with ribbons hanging down behind

HAUTE COUTURE

is fashion that is constructed by hand (without the use of sewing machines and sergers/overlockers) from start to finish, made from high quality, expensive, often unusual fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using time-consuming , hand-executed techniques. Couture translates literally from French as "dressmaking", but may also refer to fashion, sewing, or needlework[1] and is also used as a common abbreviation of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit. Haute translates literally to "high". A haute couture garment is often made for a client, tailored specifically for the wearer’s measurements and body stance. Considering the amount of time, money, and skill that is allotted to each completed piece, haute couture garments are also described as having no price tag - in other words, budget is not relevant. Each couture piece is not made to sell. Rather, they were designed and constructed for the runway, much like an art exhibition.

HELMET

Protective or ceremonial head-cover: for athletes & soldiers.

HENNIN

A high conical hat with a veil attached at the top, worn by women during the 15th century.

HIJIB 

A covering for a Muslim woman's head and face, sometimes reaching the ground, often accompanied by the niqab (face veil).

HOMBURG

A man's hat,  with a narrow upturned brim, and a depression in the top. First worn in Homburg a town in western Germany usually trimmed with a band and bow.

HOOD

Cone or capelin of felt or straw for making hats.

HORSEHAIR

Hair from a horse's mane or tail; a mass of such hairs; a fabric woven from horsehair.

JOCKEY CAP

Cloth cap with close-fitting 6-panel crown and wide brim at the front.

JULIET CAP

 A round close-fitting cap worn by women.  The style dates back to the Renaissance.

KALPAK

A triangular Turkish or Tatar felt cap.

KIPPA 

Cap worn by Jewish men. Also known as yarmulke.

KUFIE

Islamic (Muslim) prayer cap.

LEURING LATHE

Turntable with a block to support a felt hat. The hat is placed on the block and, as it turns, it is then polished or "leured" with a plush or velveteen pad, to impart a shine to the felt fibers, particularly on the crown.

MAD HATTER

Although the name "Mad Hatter" was clearly inspired by the phrase "as mad as a hatter", there is some uncertainty as to the origins of this phrase. Mercury was used in the process of curing felt used in some hats, making it impossible for hatters to avoid inhaling the mercury fumes given off during the hat making process; hatters and mill workers thus often suffered mad hatter disease, mercury poisoning causing neurological damage including confused speech and distorted vision.

MADE- TO -MEASURE

Typically refers to clothing that is sewn from a standard-sized base pattern.  The fit of a made-to-measure garment is expected to be superior to that of a ready to wear garment, because ready-to-wear garments are constructed to fit the manufacturer's definition of an average customer, while made-to-measure garments are constructed to fit each customer individually. However, made-to-measure items are seen by many to involve less workmanship than bespoke or "custom made" garments, as made-to-measure garments always involve some form of standardization in the patterning and manufacturing processes, whereas a bespoke garment is made entirely from scratch based on a customer's specifications. Typically, a made-to-measure garment will be more expensive than ready-to-wear garment but cheaper than a bespoke one.

MERCURY USAGE

Mercury Nitrate was used to soften the thicker and coarser fur (guard hair) from a rabbit or hare. This was to make the finished felt hood as soft and fine as possible, before it was made into a hat for the obvious reason that it would be of a higher quality and price.

MERCURY POISONING

Mercury is acutely hazardous as a vapor and in the form of its water-soluble salts, which corrode membranes of the body. Chronic mercury poisoning, which occurs when small amounts of the metal or its fat-soluble salts, particularly methyl mercury, are repeatedly ingested over long periods of time, causes loss of memory, irreversible brain, liver, and kidney damage. paralysis, mental derangement and eventually death. In the United States it was referred to as the Danbury shakes.  Because of increasing water pollution, significant quantities of mercury have been found in some species of fish, which has aroused concern regarding uncontrolled discharge of the metal into the environment. 

MANDAL

A turban woven with silk and gold.

MILAN STRAW

The "sewn-braid" method of hat construction has been applied to many different styles of hat, perhaps most notably the Milan Straw.  Milan (pronounced MY-len, not like the city in Italy) originated in Italy but now is produced from a village in China.  It's a type of wheat straw which is braided into long flat braids which are sewn together in a spiral from the top of the hat to the brim.  These braids often are made with gaps in them to produce a lightweight, ventilated hat body.  Milan straws are now made from blends of different types of fiber to produce varying patterns, colors, and textures.  They tend to be heavier than Panama hats, but are thicker and sturdier by comparison, also offering more option in terms of colors and styles.

MILLINER

Artisan who makes and sells hats.

MILLINERY

The craft of making hats.

MITRE

A high, pointed headdress, cleft crosswise on top and with two ribbons hanging from the back. The right to wear the mitre belongs by law only to the pope, the cardinals, and the bishops. Others require for its use a special papal privilege. For a full description and history

MORTARBOARD

Flat, square head-cover worn by professors and students for solemn academic occasions.

NAP

Short fibers extending above the surface of cloth, fabric or felt, creating a soft, downy effect such as on velvet.

NIGHT CAP

Men's cap worn informally indoors from the 16th to the 19th century. The cap had a deep crown made of four segments, with the edge turned up to form a close brim.

NIQAB

Face veil worn by Islamic women, together with the hijab (head-cover).

PANAMA

The name given straw woven in Ecuador, as well as Peru and Colombia.

PANAMA HAT

Panama hats are made exclusively in Ecuador and are hand-woven from the Tequilla Palm.

The origins of the hat go back to the 16th century when the Incas were the first to use the Tequilla palm to make hats.

PAPER HAT 

Cone or capeline made of Japanese Toyo paper, woven to imitate natural Panama. 

PARASISAL

A two over two weave of sisal fiber used to make cones and capelines. Available in 5 grades, depending on the fineness of the fiber, it is lightweight, resilient and takes dye well.

PEAK

Visor.

PHRYGIAN CAP

Conical cap with the top bent forward, named for an ancient people of Asia Minor. Worn as a symbol during the French Revolution, it is now also known as the cap of liberty.

PICTURE HAT

A hat with a very wide brim, elaborately decorated, broad-brimmed hat for women.

PILE

Nap.

PILLBOX

A small brimless cap with a flat tip and cylindrical side. Polo players in the Bois de Boulogne wore pillboxes tied under their chins in the early 1900’s. This hat became popular when Jackie Kennedy wore them. Clothes designer Halston reinvented the pillbox worn by Greta Garbo in the 1932 film As You Desire Me, especially for Mrs Kennedy. Pillboxes can be made in most types of fabric.

PITH HELMET

Helmet of cork or pith (dried spongy tissue from the sola plant), covered with cloth.

PLANKING 

 Rolling and heating the hoods to complete the felting process.

PLUSH 

 (Hatters Plush) Cloth of silk or cotton, with a longer and softer nap than velvet.

POM POM

Pompon a fluffy or woolly ball, tuft, or tassel. 

PORK PIE

The first hat to be called a pork pie was a hat worn primarily by American and English women beginning around 1830 and lasting through the American Civil War... It consisted of a small round hat with a narrow curled-up brim, a low flat or slightly domed crown with a crease running around the inside top edge, and usually with a ribbon or hatband fastened around the shoulder where the crown joined the brim. It was often worn with a small feather or two attached to a bow on one side of the hat. What made them "pork pies" was the shape and crease of the crown and the narrowness of the brim (sometimes called a "stingy brim" in reference to its brevity).

POUNCING

Rubbing down the outside of felt hats with pumice stone, sand paper or emery paper to produce a very smooth surface.

PURITAN

Black felt hat with high conical crown and narrow straight brim, worn by the Puritans during the 17th century. It was usually trimmed with a buckle at the front.

RAFFIA

A natural straw from Madagascar, the Raffia palm or its leaf-bast. available in cones, capelines, braids and hanks.

RAISING CARD

 Small wired instrument to raise nap on felt.

RASTAFARIAN HAT

The Rastafarian hat is called a "Crown" and has religious significance, the knitted version is usually colored red, yellow and green, the colour of the Ethiopian flag.

ROYAL ASCOT

The world famous English horse race meeting at Ascot, dating from the early 18th century, is particularly renowned for Ladies' Day, a unique occasion and setting to flaunt the most spectacular hats.

RUSH

Capeline made of a stiff thick straw, usually left its natural green colour.

SHAKO

A tall, cylindrical military cap usually with a visor and sometimes tapered at the top. It is usually adorned with some kind of ornamental plate or badge on the front, metallic or otherwise, and often has a feather, plume.

SINAMAY

a plant grown in the Philippines the fibers are woven into sheet or hood forms.

SISAL 

Comes from the fiber of the Abacca (Musa textilis) and is used to make cones, capelines and woven straws.

SMOKING CAP

Men's pillbox shape cap, worn during the 19th century to prevent the hair from smelling of tobacco.

SNAP BRIM

A brim that turns down sparingly.

SNOOD

A band for the hair, once worn by unmarried women in Scotland as the badge of virginity; an ornamental hairnet supporting the back of a woman's hair.

SOMBRERO 

Mexican hat with high, conical crown and very wide brim. Usually of straw or felt

ST. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA

Patron saint of milliners in France, + c. 307 A.D., celebrated November 2th.

ST. CLEMENT 3rd BISHOP OF ROME

+ c 100 A.D. Patron saint of hatters in England, celebrated November 23. By tradition, the discoverer of felt.

STIFFENING 

Originally gum Arabic, mucilage, shellac or gelatin, now superseded by cellulose or pva based chemicals. It is applied by hand or dipped, to stiffen felt or straw.

STOVE PIPE HAT

A tall 19th century top hat, made popular by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln’s hat was a silk stovepipe (top hat) which was made for him by George Hall of Springfield, Illinois. He wore it because of the President’s lack of interest in his appearance!

SUEDE FELT

Fur felt hood or capeline with short nap: surface texture resembles suede.

TAM O' SHANTER

Beret with close-fitting headband, usually trimmed with a pompon.

TIP

The top part of the crown.

TOP HAT 

Man's tall cylindrical hat with a narrow brim usually made of silk plush. Very early top hats were made of beaver felt. Also called a "Plug Hat" in the USA.

TOQUE

French term for a chef's tall white hat.  Chef's hat - starched bonnet with tall crown . French tradition states that a chef’s hat should have 100 pleats to represent the number of different ways in which a great chef can prepare eggs.

TRICORNE

Men's hat of the 18th century: wide brims were folded up to form three points.

TRILBY

The Trilby is a soft felt hat, usually made of fur felt (rabbit) it has a dented crown and flexible brim, the shape originates from the Austrian Tyrol it usually had a small feather trimming. The hat became most popular between the 1930s-40s when Schiaparelli used it to compliment clothes design. The name come from the heroine of G. du Maurier's novel - Trilby 1894 in which the heroine of the stage version, wore such a hat.

TUQUE

A Canadian cap made by tucking in one tapered end of a long cylindrical bag, closed at both ends.

TURBAN

Women's head-dress resembling men's turbans. Typical head-dress for Muslim and Sikh men, constructed by winding a long scarf around the head.

VEIL

A covering of fine fabric or net, for the head, face, or both, for protection, concealment, adornment or ceremonial purpose, especially the white transparent one often worn by a bride

VELOUR FELT

Fur felt hood or capeline with uniform nap and velvet-like surface texture.

VISOR

A partial brim, usually extending out at the front of a hat or cap.

WIDOW'S PEAK

 A close-fitting cap with a point extending down at the center of the forehead. Originally worn as a mourning bonnet by Caterina de Medici. Also a point of hair over the forehead, like the cusped front of the widow's cap formerly worn.

WILLOW

A woven and sized material made of esparto grass and cotton, used for making the base of fashion hats. Also known as esparterie and spartre.

WIMPLE

A veil folded so as to cover the head and neck and closely frame the cheeks, a fashion of the Middle Ages that remained part of a nun's dress

YARMULKE

The skullcap worn by Jewish males, especially during prayers or ceremonial occasions. Also known as kippah.

ZUCCHETTO

Small cap worn by Roman Catholic clergy: black for priests, purple for bishops, red for cardinals, white for the pope.

 

References:

The Hat Uk, The Interweb